Did you know that there are two types of dry eye? Here are the causes, symptoms and ways to prevent them. 

Dry eye is one of the most common reasons for consulting optometrists. In general, it is more prevalent in women than men, in Asian populations than Caucasian populations. This prevalence also varies proportionately with age. 

Clinically, dry eye is divided into two subtypes: aqueous deficiency dry eye and evaporative dry eye.

Aqueous deficiency dry eye is due to insufficient tear production by the lacrimal glands. 

Evaporative dry eye is caused by the rapid evaporation of tears produced by the lacrimal glands in the eye.

In both cases, the pathogenicity of the disease includes hyperosmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. This leads to various symptoms, including: 

- Red eyes

- Burning sensation

- Eye pain

- Stinging

- Blurred vision

- Watery eyes

- A sensation of a foreign body

In the occurrence of dry eye, there are many triggers. These factors can be intrinsic to the person and/or related to their lifestyle. Among these, there are:

- Age

- Hormonal changes

- Taking certain medications

- Eye surgery (LASIK, cataract, intraocular)

- Prolonged use of digital screens

- Wearing contact lenses

- Dry environments

Considering the influence of the environment on dry eyes, there are practical rules to prevent it: 

- Avoid dry environments (smoke, air conditioning)

- Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from both the sun and the wind

- Adjust the brightness of digital screens

- Blink thoroughly and regularly

- Drink the right amount of water to stay hydrated

- Clean your eyelids with a dedicated product

That's it! You are now well informed about dry eyes, its treatments and prevention. Do not hesitate to consult your IRIS optometrist for more information.